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Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs.
With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.
This makes it the oldest university in Denmark and one of the oldest in Europe.
Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age.
Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries.
The name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
As the town became more prominent, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League.
As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.